Earliest Known Uses of Words of Mathematics

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um curioso site onde se registam os significados mais antigos para termos matemáticos

These pages attempt to show the first uses of various words used in mathematics. Research for these pages is ongoing, and a citation should not be assumed to be the earliest use unless it is indicated as such.

Mathematical Words: Origins and Sources by John Aldrich is an excellent article and companion to this web site.

Please see also Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols, Images of Mathematicians on Postage Stamps, and Ambiguously Defined Mathematical Terms at the High School Level.

These pages are maintained by Jeff Miller, a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Florida. The principal contributors are John Aldrich, Julio González Cabillón, Carlos César de Araújo, and James A. Landau. Other contributors are Manoel de Campos Almeida, Antranig Basman, Dave Cohen, John Conway, Martin Davis, Karen Dee Michalowicz, Joanne M. Despres of Merriam-Webster Inc., Bill Dubuque, Mark Dunn, John G. Fauvel, Walter Felscher, Giovanni Ferraro, Tom Foregger, Michael N. Fried, John Harper, Antreas P. Hatzipolakis, Barnabas Hughes, Samuel S. Kutler, Franz Lemmermeyer, Avinoam Mann, Peter M. Neumann, Ken Pledger, Paul Pollack, Jim Propp, Aldo I. Ramirez, Lee Rudolph, Randy K. Schwartz, Max Urchs, Tom Walsh, William C. Waterhouse, and David Wilkins.

“Perhaps I may without immodesty lay claim to the appellation of Mathematical Adam, as I believe that I have given more names (passed into general circulation) of the creatures of mathematical reason than all the other mathematicians of the age combined.” —James Joseph Sylvester, Nature 37 (1888), p. 152.

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Real Chart Rules to Follow

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Excelente guia sobre construção de gráficos para representar dados.

There are a lot of “rules” for visualization. Some are actual rules, and some are suggestions to help you make choices. Many of the former can be broken, if that’s what the data dictates and you know what you’re doing.

But, there are rules—usually for specific chart types meant to be read in a specific way and with few exceptions—that you shouldn’t break. When they are, everyone loses. This is that small handful.

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visualização do intervalo de confiança

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Boa forma de visualizar o conceito de Intervalo de Confiança Aleatório.

About the visualization

Some say that a shift from hypothesis testing to confidence intervals and estimation will lead to fewer statistical misinterpretations. Personally, I am not sure about that. But I agree with the sentiment that we should stop reducing statistical analysis to binary decision-making. The problem with CIs is that they are as unintuitive and as misunderstood p-values and null hypothesis significance testing. Moreover, CIs are often used to perform hypothesis tests and are therefore prone to the same misuses as p-values.

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What is probabilistic programming?

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Uma nova forma de trabalhar com modelos Bayesianos!

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In this post, I introduce the emerging area of probabilistic programming, showing how probabilistic programs will hopefully make it easier to perform Bayesian-style machine learning, among other applications. Probabilistic programming is an exciting, and growing, area of research, with fantastic people in both AI/ML and PL working together and making big strides. PL methods — including formal semantics, optimization techniques, and forms of static analysis — have proven very useful in advancing this area forward.

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Why use R? Five reasons

Bom blogue, as principais razões para usar R

Bom blogue, as principais razões para usar R

Why use R? Five reasons.

In this post I will go through 5 reasons: zero cost, crazy popularity, awesome power, dazzling flexibility, and mind-blowing support. I believe R is the best statistical programming language to learn. As a blogger who has contributed over 150 posts in Stata and over 100 in R I have extensive experience with both a proprietary statistical programming language as well as the open source alternative.  In my graduate career I have also had the opportunity to experiment with the proprietary software SPSS, SAS, Mathematica, as well as MPlus.

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Exponential water tank

Uma excelente forma de perceber a distribuição exponencial

Uma excelente forma de perceber a distribuição exponencial

Hibai Unzueta, based on a paper by Albert Bartlett, demonstrates exponential growth with a simple animation. It depicts a man standing in a tank with finite capacity and water rising slowly, but at an exponential rate.

Our brains are wired to predict future behaviour based on past behaviour (see here). But what happens when something growths exponentially? For a long time, the numbers are so little in relation to the scale that we hardly see the changes. But even at moderate growth rates exponential functions reach a point where the numbers grow too fast. Once we confirm that our predictions about the future have failed, very little time to react may be left.

All looks safe at first, because the water rises so slowly, but it seems to rise all of a sudden. Oh, the suspense. What will happen to cartoon pixel man?

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A fábrica de Lego e o Lean Six Sigma

Uma animação com exemplo de aplicação do lean six sigma

Uma animação com exemplo de aplicação do lean six sigma

Neste vídeo, uma fábrica de Lego cuja situação era de caos e desastre torna-se um exemplo de gestão, após a aplicação dos conceitos de Lean Six Sigma.

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Como otimizar um processo de negócio

Business Process Management (BPM) explicado por um consultor

Business Process Management (BPM) explicado por um consultor

Neste artigo apresentarei uma técnica prática e eficaz para o aprimoramento dos processos corporativos, o mapeamento de processos. Esta técnica é apenas a ponta do iceberg de um tema muito mais abrangente denominado Business Process Management (BPM), ou Gestão por Processos de Negócio. Explicarei brevemente a metodologia de BPM, seus benefícios e ferramentas, mas o foco de nossa conversa é o primeiro passo desta metodologia o MAPEAMENTO DE PROCESSOS.

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Introduction to Diagrams

Uma bela introdução aos grafos

Uma bela introdução aos grafos

Diagrams are everywhere — from the established conventions of highway signs to the newly emerging visualizations appearing on social networking websites.  Most people have a personal experience of diagrams whether drawing directions or figuring out how to operate a new computer. Yet very few people are familiar with how we read or construct diagrams.

This short film introduces the language of diagrams and their role in visual thinking and communication. As only a film can do, it reveals the vocabulary “in the wild” and in the context of making and using diagrams.

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Mathematics resources – mathcentre

Materiais para as aulas: Análise e álgebra

Materiais para as aulas: Análise e álgebra

Quick Reference Leaflets icon Quick Reference leaflets – key topics in a nutshell – brief and easily accessible resources

Mathtutor video tutorials icon mathtutor Video tutorials – watch and listen to a tutor working through important topics

Teach-yourself booklets icon Teach Yourself booklets – written to accompany the videos, these provide in-depth treatment of important topics, with theory, worked examples and exercises

Practice and revision booklets icon Practice & Revision booklets – hundreds of practice exercises with answers covering important topics in algebra and calculus

On-line diagnostic tests icon On-line Test Yourself diagnostics – on specific topics to enable you to gauge your competency and decide whether further work is required

On-line exercises icon On-line Test Yourself exercises – with answers provided, to enable you to practice key techniques

STACK iconon-line exercises and fully worked solutions generated from the STACK computer-assisted assessment system and linked directly from selected Teach Yourself booklets

iPod video segments icon iPOD Video segments – short video clips that you can download to your video iPod for support on the move

3GP mobile phone downloads icon 3GP Mobile Phone downloads – short video clips that you can download to your mobile phone

Facts & Formulae Leaflets icon Facts & Formulae Leaflets – electronic versions of the very popular leaflets distributed by the Higher Education Academy MSOR Subject Centre

Motivating Mathematics icon Motivating Mathematics – videos showing practical applications of mathematics in everyday life

Staff Resources – a selection of case studies, resource packs, links to key reports and research on mathematics support, and other valuable resources for staff who offer mathematics support

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